François Hollande, né le 12 août 1954 à Rouen, est un homme d'État français, élu président de la République le 6 mai 2012. Magistrat à la cour des comptes et avocat de profession, il devient premier secrétaire du Parti socialiste de 1997 à 2008, pendant la troisième cohabitation puis dans l'opposition. Maire de Tulle de 2001 à 2008, il est député de la première circonscription de la Corrèze de 1988 à 1993 et de nouveau de 1997 à 2012 et préside le conseil général de la Corrèze de 2008 à 2012. Désigné candidat du PS et du PRG à l'élection présidentielle de 2012 à l'issue d'une primaire, il emporte le second tour avec 51,64 % des voix, face au président sortant, Nicolas Sarkozy. Lors de son investiture, le 15 mai 2012, il devient le 24e président de la République française et le 7e président de la Cinquième République.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande naît le 12 août 1954 à Rouen en Seine Maritime. Il est le fils cadet du docteur Georges Gustave Hollande, né le 9 mai 1923 à Cognac, médecin ORL, candidat malchanceux sur une liste d'extrême droite aux élections municipales de Rouen en 1959 et de Bois-Guillaume en 1965. Sa mère, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert, catholique de gauche née le 7 septembre 1927 à Vigneux-sur-Seine et décédée le 8 mars 2009 à Cannes, était assistante sociale. Cette dernière figurait en 2008 sur la liste du Parti socialiste pour l'élection municipale de la ville de Cannes en position inéligible.
Mandats et fonctions
- 23 juin 1988 - 1er avril 1993 : député de la première circonscription de la Corrèze.
- 12 juin 1997 - 14 mai 2012 : député de la première circonscription de la Corrèze.
- 20 juillet 1999 - 17 décembre 1999 : député européen.
- 14 mars 1983 - 16 mars 1989 : conseiller municipal d'Ussel.
- 17 mars 1989 - 24 juin 1995 : adjoint au maire de Tulle.
- 23 mars 1992 - 30 mars 1992 : conseiller régional du Limousin.
- 25 juin 1995 - 18 mars 2001 : conseiller municipal de Tulle.
- 16 mars 1998 - 2 avril 2001 : conseiller régional du Limousin.
- 19 mars 2001 - 17 mars 2008 : maire de Tulle.
- 16 mars 2008 - 11 mai 2012 : conseiller général de la Corrèze, pour le canton de Vigeois.
- 20 mars 2008 - 11 mai 2012 : président du conseil général de la Corrèze.
- 1995 - 1997 : porte-parole, secrétaire national du Parti socialiste, chargé de la presse.
- 1997 - 2008 : membre du bureau national et premier secrétaire du Parti socialiste.
Présidence de la République
- Depuis le 15 mai 2012 : président de la République française et coprince d'Andorre
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is the 24th and current President of France and Co-Prince of Andorra. He was previously the First Secretary of the French Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, and the Deputy of the National Assembly of France for Corrèze's 1st Constituency from 1988 to 1993 and then again from 1997 to 2012. He also served as the Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008 and the President of the General Council of Corrèze from 2008 to 2012. He was elected President of France on 6 May 2012, defeating the incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy, and was sworn in on 15 May. He is the second Socialist Party President of the Fifth French Republic, after François Mitterrand.
François Hollande was born in Rouen to an upper-middle-class family. social worker, and his father, Georges Gustave Hollande, an ear, nose, and throat doctor who "had once run for the far right in local politics." The surname "Hollande" is "believed to come from Calvinist ancestors who escaped the Netherlands in the 16th century and took the name of their old country." Hollande was raised Catholic but is now an agnostic. (In December 2011, Hollande told the French Christian magazine La Vie that he respects all religious practices but has none of his own.) The family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a highly exclusive suburb of Paris, when Hollande was 13.
His mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert (1927–2009), was a
After volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's ultimately unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party five years later. He was quickly spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to stand for election to the French National Assembly in 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, who was then the Leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party. Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round.
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
Jospin selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman, and Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997, successfully returning to the National Assembly. That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of France, and Hollande won the election for his successor as First Secretary of the French Socialist Party, a position he would hold for eleven years. Hollande's position led some to refer to him the "Vice Prime Minister". Hollande would go on to be elected the Mayor of Tulle in 2001, an office he would hold for the next seven years. After the triumph of the Left in the 2004 regional elections, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but the Socialists were divided on the European Constitution, and Hollande's support for the ill-fated "yes" position in the French referendum on the European Constitution caused friction within the party. Although Hollande was re-elected as First Secretary at the Le Mans Congress in 2005, his authority over the party began to decline from this point onwards.
After the triumph of the Left in the 2004 regional elections, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but the Socialists were divided on the European Constitution, and Hollande's support for the ill-fated "yes" position in the French referendum on the European Constitution caused friction within the party. Although Hollande was re-elected as First Secretary at the Le Mans Congress in 2005, his authority over the party began to decline from this point onwards. Eventually his domestic partner, Ségolène Royal, was chosen to represent the Socialist Party in the 2007 presidential election, where she would lose to Nicolas Sarkozy. Hollande was widely blamed for the poor performances of the Socialist Party in the 2007 elections, and he announced that he would not seek another term as First Secretary. Hollande publicly declared his support for Bertrand Delanoë, the Mayor of Paris, although it was Martine Aubry who would go on to win the race to succeed him in 2008.
President of France
François Hollande was elected President of France on 6 May 2012. He was inaugurated on 15 May, and shortly afterwards appointed Jean-Marc Ayrault to be his Prime Minister. He also appointed Benoît Puga to be the military's Chief of Staff, Pierre-René Lemas as his General Secretary and Pierre Besnard as his Head of Cabinet. On his first official visit to a foreign country in his capacity as President of France, the airplane transporting him was hit by lightning. The plane returned safely to Paris where he took another flight to Germany. The first measures he took were to lower the income of the President, the Prime Minister, and other members of the government by 30%, and to make them sign a "code of ethics".
In accordance with long-standing Socialist Party policy, Hollande has announced that the retirement age will revert to 60, for those who have contributed for more than 41 years. In July 2012, Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault announced that "In the first half of 2013, the right to marriage and adoption will be open to all couples, without discrimination [...]", confirming this election promise by Hollande. A bill legalizing same-sex marriage and adoption is to be introduced in October 2012.
Hollande has also announced his personal support for same-sex marriage and adoption for LGBT couples, and has outlined plans to pursue the issue in early 2013.
On 11 January 2013, Hollande authorised the execution of Operation Serval, which aimed to curtail the activities of Islamic extremists in the north of Mali. The intervention was popularly supported in Mali, as Hollande promised that his government would do it all it could to "rebuild Mali". During his one-day visit to Bamako, Mali's capital, on February 2, 2013, he said that it “the most important day in [his] political life”.
May 8, 2012